Reflections on the Structural Adjustment of Printing and Equipment Industry

Abstract: This paper analyzes the main problems in the printing and equipment industry in China and the new situation facing them. It is believed that another printing and equipment equipment industry must speed up the adjustment of the industry structure and product structure.
Adjusting the economic structure is the main line of China's "10th Five-Year Plan" economic plan and is an urgent requirement and long-term task for China's national economic development. China's printing and equipment and equipment industries are also facing the difficult task of structural adjustment. We must proceed from the reality of China's printing and equipment and equipment industries to speed up the pace of structural adjustment to adapt to changes in market demand, improve competitiveness and efficiency, and promote the sustained and healthy development of China's printing and equipment equipment industry.
First, facing the new situation of market demand and market environment changes. The composition of the printing market has undergone major changes. In the past, China’s print market was dominated by books, newspapers, and newspapers. With the development of the socialist market economy, packaging printing, various commercial printing, and special printing have grown at a faster rate, and their share has been increasing. This has become an important growth factor in the development of the printing industry in China. Points and pillars.
2. The requirements for printing products have undergone major changes. Personalization, short versioning, diversification, high quality, fast delivery and good service of printed products have become the main trends and requirements for the development of the printing products market.
3. With the globalization of the economy and China's accession to the WTO, the domestic market will be further internationalized. Domestic enterprises will face competition with foreign large companies and transnational companies that have significant advantages in technology, capital, and market share, and market competition will become fiercer;
4. With the advent of the information age, paper-based printing has become the main carrier of information dissemination, facing fierce competition in electronic media (such as CD-ROM, VCD, TV, INTERNET, etc.), and the integration of print media and electronic media has emerged. The new trend. For example, pre-production of electronic media and print media is basically the same, resources can be shared, electronic printing business websites and online printing and multimedia publications appear. Although the print media will grow at a relatively rapid rate in China, the potential for development will be great, but its share in the media will continue to decline.
5. In the past decade or so, foreign printing technology has advanced by leaps and bounds, and a revolutionary reform and reorganization has taken place. Digital technology, network technology, automation technology, digital workflow, and printing environmental protection and green printing have become the main directions for the development of printing technology. , And quickly realize the industrialization and promotion and application; a variety of printing processes competing for brilliant, Qi head development, and the emergence of a different combination of different printing processes, complementary advantages of the new trend. It can be said that with the advancement of printing technology, the development of China's printing industry is facing a huge new technology demand.
II. Main problems existing In the past two decades or so, great changes have taken place in China's printing and equipment and equipment industries, and remarkable progress and development have been achieved, but now they have opened new gaps compared with the international advanced level. Far from meeting the needs of China’s economic development and the improvement of the people’s spirit, culture, and material living standards, the main problems are:
1. Most of the large- and medium-sized printing enterprises in China's books and periodicals have been established under the planned economic system, and the corporate structure is not rational; the low-level duplication between enterprises and enterprises is serious, the low-level production capacity is excessive, and the advanced high-level production capacity is insufficient; historical burdens are heavy. Overstaffing is excessive, equipment utilization is low, labor productivity is low, and there is a lack of large-scale printing groups and specialized printing companies with special characteristics. Of the top ten multinational printing companies in the world, Dainippon Printing and Letterpress Printing Company had sales of US$ 11.5 billion and US$ 9.5 billion in 1995, and were co-printed by the last two British Rexam and Japan, with annual sales reaching 15%. With billions of dollars and 1.2 billion U.S. dollars, the annual sales of books and magazines printing companies in China are far from this.
2. China's printing equipment manufacturing industry has a large and complete structure, is small and complete, has a low level of professionalism, and has low new product development capabilities and innovation capabilities. In general, the products are backward in technology, poor in quality, weak in sales and after-sales services, and lack of competitiveness. From the perspective of prepress, printing, and postpress equipment, printing equipment has a certain foundation and scale. Postpress equipment has been relatively Rapid development, but overall it is still relatively weak; prepress electronic equipment mainly relies on imports; advanced printing technologies such as digital technology, key automation technology, digital inkjet, etc., domestic enterprises have not yet mastered, in the introduction of high-tech products and foreign joint ventures No major breakthrough has been made. With different printing process analysis, the development of China's special printing technology, flexo printing technology and inkjet printing lags behind; the proportion of flexo printing in packaging and printing is too small, the proportion of color offset printing is too large, which is not conducive to reducing the cost of packaging; import volume of printing equipment In 2001, it was over US$1.3 billion, ranking second in international printing equipment imports, and the export volume was too small. In 2001, the export volume was about US$35 million, which formed a huge contrast. In recent years, domestic printing equipment manufacturers have been Although there has been some progress in reorganization and joint establishment of the group, there is a long way to go compared with international multinational corporations. Heidelberg's annual sales in 1998-1999 reached 8 billion marks. In 2000, the total output value of printing equipment manufacturing enterprises in China was only 3.1 billion yuan. The annual sales volume of the two largest printing machinery groups was only about 6 to 10 billion yuan.
3. Although China's printing equipment industry has a fairly large scale and can basically meet domestic demand, high-grade printing inks and inkjet printing inks still need a lot of imports. There are more than 300 printing ink industries. In 2000, 185,000 tons of printing inks were produced. Major enterprises have joint ventures with foreign companies. The joint venture's output accounts for about 70% of the country's total output. In 2000, China produced about 50 million square meters of PS version, and its production capacity was in excess. However, the CTP PS version still needs to be imported. The thermal CTP version was only put into production in China this year.
4. China's printing and equipment and equipment companies generally look at not only backward technology, but also lagging behind in management, low labor productivity and efficiency, and lack of market competitiveness.
3. Accelerating the investigation of business organizations and product structure and promoting the optimization and upgrading of industries The general principle of structural adjustment, as pointed out by General Secretary Jiang Zemin in the “Tenth Five-Year Plan” report, should be market-oriented and make the production of enterprises suitable for the needs of the domestic market. Change; rely on scientific and technological progress to promote the optimization of industrial structure; give full play to local advantages; promote the coordinated development of regional economy; change the mode of growth, and change the situation of high input, low output, high consumption, and low efficiency. Premier Zhu pointed out in the “10th Five-Year Plan” proposal note that industrial restructuring, transformation, and structural optimization and upgrading are a very urgent task in the strategic adjustment of the economic structure; in accordance with the principle of specialization, division of labor, and economies of scale, the organizational structure of the company is accelerated. Through adjustments, through mergers, alliances, reorganizations, and other forms, a group of large companies and enterprise groups with independent intellectual property rights, prominent main businesses, and strong core competencies are formed to increase industrial concentration and product development capabilities; and active support for SMEs, especially technology Enterprises, to promote SMEs to "professional, refined, special, new" direction; under the state's macro-control, give full play to the role of market mechanisms, and gradually form a large enterprise-led, large, medium and small enterprises coordinated development pattern.
The spirit of these speeches of the central leadership is to discuss the issue of economic structural adjustment from the overall perspective of the development of the national economy and the strategic height. It also has important guiding significance for the structural adjustment of China's printing and equipment and equipment industries. We must learn to understand and implement these spirits, combine the new situation and existing problems that China's printing and equipment equipment industry is actually facing, analyze and study the organizational structure of the industry, adjust the product structure and other related issues, and propose corresponding countermeasures to promote printing and equipment in China. The equipment industry has taken another step in the first 10 years of this century.
1. The first adjustment of the organizational structure of the enterprise is to adjust the organizational structure of the enterprise and solve the problems of large-scale, small, and comprehensive enterprises and develop professional and socialized production. The organizational structure of printing equipment manufacturing companies used to be mostly "olives type" in the past, with large middle parts and small two parts, ie, the proportion of parts and components production was significant, and the development capability and product marketing and after-sales service capacity were weak; through the adjustment of organizational structure, it became "dumbbell type". In other words, with the exception of the production and assembly of a few key parts and components that are in their own hands, a large number of general parts and components will be resolved through outsourcing or in the market, strengthening product research and development, marketing and market development capabilities. For printing companies, the printing process includes prepress, printing and postpress processing. Although printing companies are different from machinery companies, prepress and postpress processing are not necessarily complete for every company, especially for small and medium printing. For enterprises, pre-press and post-press socialization and professional production are in many cases more conducive to improving equipment utilization and efficiency. At present, except for the development of professional production of gravure and engraved engraving and certain development of binding specialization, the specialization production in China has not been fully developed. Some printing companies in Hong Kong and Taiwan set up factories independently before and after printing in order to increase the efficiency of equipment utilization. For example, Chen’s company in Taiwan has Shen’s color printing factory, lean binding factory and ticket printing factory in an office building. The lean binding factory has only 38 employees, and in addition to undertaking the Shen Shi color printing factory binding task, half of the capacity is able to undertake the binding task externally. The Hong Kong China Business Printing Group has six subsidiaries in an office building. Apart from China Color Printing Co., Ltd., there are China Business Security Printing Company, China Business Color Separation Co., Ltd, and China Business Printing Equipment Co., Ltd. This kind of organizational structure is worth our country's printing companies learn from when adjusting the organizational structure. For printing companies, most of them need to strengthen prepress creativity and services, product marketing and market development.
Second, with the continuous development and progress of printing technology, it is necessary to constantly adjust the organizational structure of the company to meet the needs of technological progress. For example, in the past two decades, with the application of laser photocopying and computer layout design techniques, the production of lead characters, word detection, typesetting, and other processes have been eliminated and replaced by prepress electronic devices and technologies. With the development of CTP technology, new changes are taking place in the process of plate making and proofing. With the development of digital technology and modern communication and network technology, there are many parts of prepress workmanship that can be undertaken by the users themselves, with e-commerce and With the development of online printing, part of the printing process will likely be dispersed among users and distributors around the world. With the wide application of digital technology and automation technology, foreign printing equipment manufacturers mostly increase the production and debugging workshop or section of electronic and control equipment production, or set up an electronic branch factory, or cooperate with electronic and automation equipment companies, Heidelberg, Roland, and High. Most of the automation devices used by printing equipment manufacturers such as Bao, Komori, and Mitsubishi are manufactured and supplied by German WEKO and British Baldwin. With the development of digital printing technology, international printing equipment manufacturers and mastering prepress and Digital technology companies and CTP media corporations have collaborated extensively into fashion, such as Agfa and DuPont, Kodak and Polaroid, Creo and Heidelberg and Komori, Komori and Sai Angel, Creo and Polaroid. Cooperation and so on.
The third is to form a large enterprise group through mergers, reorganizations and joint ventures to expand the service area and provide users with various solutions required for various printing processes. Since 1995, Heidelberg has made drastic changes to its internal structure. In 1996, the company Stork Contiweb of the Netherlands, Sherida System of the United Kingdom and the United States, and Lynotype Hell of the United Kingdom acquired the Elonga (EAC) in Asia in 1998 and received the Imaging Division of Kodak in 1999. ) and the image department of Rodester, USA, established pre-press equipment, direct imaging, speed fighter, fast printing, web transfer, postpress, electronic products and production of eight independent business units within the company, expanding the service area to the printing process. The whole process and a variety of printing process technology equipment. In recent years, domestic companies have successfully carried out some mergers, mergers, and reorganizations, forming two groups, Beiren and Shanghai, and continuously expanding their service areas. This year, Beiren merged with Shaanxi Printing Machinery, established Shaanxi Beiren Printing Machinery Co., Ltd., Shanghai Printing Machinery Co., Ltd. acquired Japan Akiyama Corporation, Jingdezhen Printing Machinery Co., Ltd., Weihai Printing Machinery Co., Ltd., Tangshan Yuyin and Changchun. Four remanufactured enterprises, such as the printer factory, set up a loose-type Lianqiang Group; three companies, Founder Electronics, Yingkou Guanhua and Hanguang Equipment, jointly developed a digital direct-connected platemaking system suitable for small and medium-sized printing enterprises; a batch of printed products has been established nationwide. Bao Group, and formed a printing and packaging base in Guangdong, South Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang East and Guangdong Zhongshan

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